More Jacobite Women

There is information available about a number of female Jacobites. Several of these women have been featured in previous blog posts. Here are a couple more, with details about what each of them did to support the Jacobite cause.

Isabella Lumsden

Isabella came from a family of staunch Jacobites, and she was just as devoted. When a talented young artist, Robert Strange, fell in love with her, she agreed to marry him on the condition that he focus his abilities on producing works in support of the Jacobites. Robert, who had not been political before, produced pro-Jacobite engravings and fans, with one design depicting Prince Charles among Ancient Greek heroes. Isabella herself would then sell these fans to other Jacobite women.

Robert fought with the Jacobites, before being forced into hiding where he stayed in the attic at Isabella’s family home. After a few months, Government troops turned up at the door, searching for Robert. He did not have enough time to get to the attic, so Isabella sat down at the spinning wheel, lifted up her huge hooped petticoat and got Robert to climb underneath, before covering him with her skirts. She sat singing to herself, while the troops searched the house, finding no one.

A year later the two got married, and when Robert was knighted Isabella became Lady Strange. She remained a Jacobite, long after Culloden, and whenever someone spoke of the ‘Pretender’ near her, she responded, ‘Pretender? Prince, and be damned to ye!’

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Charles Edward Stuart – By Robert Strange, Isabella’s husband

Lady Nairne

Though an old woman when Prince Charles arrived in Scotland, Lady Nairne had a lot of influence over those around her. Always a committed Jacobite, the Earl of Mar had stated during the 1715 Rising that he wished that all of his men had her spirit. In 1745, a number of her sons, grandsons, nephews and sons-in-law participated in the Rising; she was quick to send men whenever one of her sons-in-law in Perth experienced trouble with Government troops.

Her daughters were also passionate about the matter. One of them, Lady Lude, developed a reputation for cruelty. She tried to bully people to join the Jacobite force, threatening to burn their homes if they did not. There were several instances where the threat was carried out and it is believed Lady Nairne was complicit in her daughter’s methods. Eventually Lady Lude was arrested, and the Government council wanted to prosecute both her and her mother. Lady Nairne wrote a letter to her Hanoverian nephew, the Duke of Atholl, asking for help and in the end both women escaped prosecution.

A descendent of Lady Nairne’s, Carolina Oliphant (who also became Lady Nairne), became a romantic Jacobite songwriter, and her works were popular with the Victorians. Her songs include The Rowan Tree, Wha’ll be King but Charlie, The Hundered Pipers and Charlie is my darling.

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Lady Nairne (senior)

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All the best, The Culloden Team

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Cromarties Regiment

George Mackenzie the 3rd Earl of Cromartie, born in 1702, became the Earl after his father John Mackenzie died in 1731. During the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 George Mackenzie was doubtful about joining Charles Edward Stuart in his campaign to regain the British throne for a Stuart king.

Eventually George was persuaded by kinsmen and none other than the ‘old fox’, Simon Fraser the 11th Lord Lovat, to take up arms against the government for the ‘Bonnie Prince’. Lord Lovat handed George his great-great-grandfather’s sword, entitled ‘The Triumphing Sword of the Clan Mackenzie’ telling him to support his prince and be loyal to his country.

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George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie
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John Mackenzie, Lord Macleod

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Even though a lot of Mackenzie clansmen joined the government side during the ‘45 there were some Mackenzies who had a strong sense of being a Highlander, and felt they owed it to themselves and to Scotland to join George and his son John Mackenzie, Lord Macleod, in the fight for the British throne.

George and his son led 500 Jacobite Mackenzies, known as Cromartie’s Regiment, at the battle of Falkirk on the 16th of January 1746 after the return from Derby. The Mackenzies helped the Jacobites defeat the government troops, this victory also marked the last noteworthy Jacobite success during the ‘45.

After Falkirk, before Cromartie’s Regiment joined the bonnie prince on the way towards Culloden they laid waste to the lands of the Clan Munro and Clan Sutherland. They  burned Foulis Castle which was the seat of Clan Munro and captured Dunrobin Castle which was the seat of Clan Sutherland. Both Clan Munro and Sutherland supported the government during the ’45, and that made them an enemy of the Jacobites.

On the 15th of April 1746, a day before the Battle of Culloden the Earl of Cromartie was making preparations to travel back south to meet Charles Edward Stuart. Before they left they were attacked by the Mackay and Sutherland Highlanders who were supporting the government, in what later became known as the Battle of Littleferry. Cromartie’s Regiment was defeated; George and his son John were captured at Dunrobin castle and were not able to Join Prince Charles and the other Jacobites, and they never saw the horrors of the Battle of Culloden.

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Cromarties’ Regiment at the Battle of Littleferry

Soon after George Mackenzie and his son were captured the Earl of Cromartie’s titles were forfeited, until the title was recreated in 1861. John, the son of George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie, kept a diary during the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 which was taken from him during his capture. This Diary is now in the hands of Register House in Edinburgh. The Diary tells about how tough the Jacobite life could be, often being ill equipped and poorly paid and having a small amount of food.

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Earldom of Cromartie Crest

Ultimately George was tried and sentenced to death but was never executed. He received a conditional pardon, probably because his wife was heavily pregnant. Even though he was pardoned he was condemned to living in extreme poverty because all his lands and his family estates based at Castle Leod were confiscated. Many years later George died in London at the age of 63 in 1766.

His son John Mackenzie, Lord Macleod, was never brought to trial after his capture even though he confessed and pleaded guilty to high treason. John received a full pardon in 1748 on the condition “that within six months of his 21st birthday he would convey to the Crown all his rights in the Earldom”. John eventually died many years later on the 2nd April 1789 at the age of 62.

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Siege of Fort William

The siege of Fort William began on the 20th of March, 1746. The Jacobites, having just captured the more northerly Fort Augustus after a two-day siege, were eager to expand their territories. The Government leader, the Duke of Cumberland, declared Fort William to be “the only fort in the Highlands that is of any consequence”, and shortly before the siege the fort’s aging governor was replaced with a man Cumberland thought more equal to defending it. This preparation, combined with the superior strength of Fort William, meant that the siege ended up lasting for two weeks before the Jacobites abandoned it.

Fort William’s new governor, Captain Caroline Scott, belonged to Guise’s 6th. This regiment helped to make up a 400-strong garrison, which also included the Argyll Militia. Meanwhile the Jacobite side was made up of Lochiel, Appin and Keppoch’s clansmen, the French regulars and was headed by Lieutenant Colonel Stapleton. These were the same men who had laid siege to Fort Augustus not long ago.

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Donald Cameron of Lochiel

Fort William was better built than Fort Augustus to withstand a siege with its location along Loch Ness making it easier to combat attacks. The previous month, the Government troops had begun to demolish Maryburgh, a nearby town, in order to clear the line of fire towards approaching enemies. Within the fort the armament was made up of enough 12-pounder cannon, 6-pounders, coehorns, 13-inch mortars and smaller pieces that Captain Scott believed that, with a suitable amount of ammunition, withstanding a siege was achievable.

The Jacobites, on the other hand, were disadvantaged in that, though they had some munitions, they lacked enough strong horses to carry heavy guns from Inverness. This, combined with bad weather and an interception on the road, meant that the Jacobites did not have as much good quality arms as they had originally hoped for when they planned their attack.

Nevertheless on the 20th March 1746 they opened fire against Fort William. Armed with cannon and 6-inch mortars, the Jacobites fired using old nails, grapeshot, cold roundshot and scalding lengths of notched iron as missiles. The notched iron was aimed to lodge in timbers. Over the course of the siege it was noted that the Jacobites made the roof of the fort “exceedingly damaged”, but failed to have that much of an effect on its walls. From the loch the Government side was assisted by sloops travelling along Loch Linnhe and with their stores of ammunition they kept the Jacobites at bay.

As March turned into April, the attacks began to lessen. The siege had been raging for two weeks and the Jacobites were no closer to achieving their goal. On the 3rd April the siege was officially abandoned. The Jacobites headed back to join the main army with Prince Charles who was keen to have as many men as possible united and ready to fight the Duke of Cumberland who was bust training his troops in Aberdeen.

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Jacobite Plots

In 1688, William of Orange invaded England and successfully overthrew James VII of Scotland and II of England and Ireland. The following year, William and his wife Mary were crowned joint sovereigns. The deposition of James lead to the formation of the Jacobite cause (Jacobus being Latin for James). In the 1690s, the Jacobites’ frustration presented itself in the form of several plots to get William off the throne and James, who to them had always been the rightful King, back on it. There were three main plots: the Ailesbury plot, the Fenwick plot and the Assassination plot of 1696.

The Ailesbury plot was planned over the winter of 1691-2. Those involved were mostly peers and gentlemen based in the south of England. The Earl of Ailesbury was an active participant, but the idea itself came from James’s Secretary of State: the Earl of Melfort. The plan was for a French fleet to deliver an army, led by James, to England; the conspirators would raise their tenants to join James and the French to fight to overthrow William and Mary.

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William and Mary

However, the Government soon got word of this plan and sent out people to round up the main plotters whilst arranging ships along the English coast in anticipation of the French. Bad weather kept the French from crossing the Channel, and in May the Anglo-Dutch fleet defeated the French in Normandy at the Battles of Barfleur and La Hogue. The plot was ended before it had truly begun but questions over who had been involved and how far they could have got aroused paranoia and panic on the British Isles.

In 1694 Mary, who had a better claim to the throne than her husband, died childless. The Jacobites still felt anger that William sat on the throne while James and his son lived in exile. The massacre at Glencoe had increased people’s distrust of William, for it was unclear how much involvement he had had in the brutal event.

The following year John Fenwick, the head of a number of Jacobites, led the Fenwick plot. He aimed to secure a port on the south coast of England so that a French army could arrive safely and march with him and his associates to London so they could capture William. It was a dangerous venture, and soon the plan was at a standstill; Fenwick did not want to risk seizing the port until the French had set sail, and the French did not want to set sail until they were sure had Fenwick had secured the port for them. They were stuck in a stalemate.

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James VII & II

All was not lost though as from the Fenwick plot sprang the Assassination plot of 1696.  This plan, organised by Sir George Barclay, was to attack William while he was out in his coach. Once again though word got out of Jacobites meeting and the plot was foiled when one of the men, Thomas Prendergast, revealed everything to the Government. The conspirators of both the Fenwick plot and the Assassination plot were searched for. Later, when questioned, the Jacobites caught insisted that they had only intended to kidnap William, but informers declared that murder had been central in their plan. They met varied ends, with some being executed or imprisoned, and some managing to escape. Of the two men conspirators Barclay managed to escape to France, while Fenwick was eventually executed.

These plots, rather than helping to achieve the ultimate goal actually hurt the Jacobite cause. Many who had before felt apathetic about the situation now felt sympathy towards William. Several of the most prominent Jacobites were now dead, in hiding or intimidated into inactivity.

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The Skirmish of Tongue

In March 1746, less than a month before the Battle of Culloden, a number of those belonging to the two conflicting sides met at Tongue, a coastal village in the Highlands; there, those loyal to the Jacobite cause were captured, and their ship, Le Prince Charles Stuart, was plundered.

The ship in question had been the British HMS Hazard, but had been stolen by some Jacobites a few months earlier in Montrose, before being sailed to Dunkirk and given its new name. Louis XV of France sent it back up to Scotland, filled with around 160 French, Spanish, Irish and Scottish men. Up until this point, the Jacobites had been disappointed in King Louis’ underwhelming acts of assistance. However, along with some supplies, Louis sent £13,000 in gold, which translates to a little over £1.5 million in today’s money.

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King Louis XV of France

The sailing over to Scotland was not simple though as it experienced trouble not long after leaving Dunkirk and was forced ashore by a couple of English privateers on the coast of Belgium. It suffered some damage, but not enough to stop Captain Talbot from wanting to continue the voyage to Scotland. The intention had been to disembark at Portsoy, a harbour town located about 50 miles from Aberdeen, but soon it became clear to Talbot that Le Prince Charles Stuart was being chased.

Four Government ships pursued Le Prince. Talbot, desperate and acknowledging his lack of knowledge of the area, took aboard two local fishermen to help him escape the enemy. Eventually on ship, the 24-gunned HMS Sheerness, broke off from the other Government ships and tailed Talbot, getting closer and closer. Talbot sailed into the Kyle of Tongue, where he hoped that the larger Sheerness would not be able to fully enter, but he ended up beaching his ship on a sandbank, trapping it as the Sheerness was still close enough to shoot.

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Kyle of Tongue

After several hours of continual shots being fired between the two ships, Talbot gave the orders to unload the goods. The plan was now for the crew to carry the gold and supplies to Prince Charles’ base in Inverness. As daylight broke the men began their trek to Inverness but the captain of the Sheerness had by this point realised that Le Prince was what had been known as HMS Hazard, and sent out a group to look for Government supporters to help to capture the Jacobite soldiers.

Before long the Jacobites were surrounded by Government men, and after several deaths and the arrival of further opposition headed by Captain George Mackay, the Jacobites surrendered, but not before reportedly throwing the gold into the water.

The surviving Le Prince men were captured and imprisoned aboard the Sheerness which prevented them from being able to fight at the Battle of Culloden. Le Prince became known as HMS Hazard again, and after some repairs, it was put back into the Government navy. As for the gold, it was largely recovered and shared among the Government leaders and their men as a reward for taking it from the Jacobites.

It makes for an interesting what if? The Bellona and the Mars arrived once the Battle of Culloden had been lost, but if the gold and soldiers of Le Prince had got to Charles in time, it is difficult to say how much of an impact it would have had, how much it could have changed things for the Jacobites. Not only would Charles have had money to properly feed, equip and pay the troops he already had, as well as hire new ones, but it would also have been a morale boost for the Jacobites to feel that they had such support and that the confidence of the leader they had been following was not unfounded.

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Viscount Dundee

The first Viscount Dundee was one of the strongest supporters of the Jacobite cause in its beginning. His raising of the Standard was a mark of the start of the First Jacobite Rising in 1689, and his death at the otherwise victorious Battle of Killiecrankie a few months later was a huge blow for the Jacobites. He became known as a Jacobite hero, and can still be identified by the epithet ‘Bonnie Dundee’.

He was born John Graham of Claverhouse and was the elder son born into an old family situated near Dundee. After being educated at the University of St Andrews, he served with the French and Dutch armies, where he achieved some distinction. However, after striking a fellow soldier and subsequently being refused a promotion, he returned to Scotland in 1678.

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John Graham of Claverhouse aka Viscount Dundee

Back home, it was suggested to King Charles II, by his brother James, that Claverhouse be given charge of one of three sets of troops tasked with supressing the Covenanters in south-west Scotland. Claverhouse was frustrated at his lack of resources in this position, and was defeated at the Battle of Drumclog. He and his troops were then absorbed into the Duke of Monmouth’s army, and the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge a few weeks later. In the next decade, Claverhouse was given his other enduring nickname: ‘Bluidy Clavers’. The Covenanters dubbed him this for his perceived harshness in combating their movement.

James gave Claverhouse several proofs of his favour, which continued when he became King James VII and II in 1685; in 1688 Claverhouse was made Viscount Dundee. James’s rule, however, would prove rather short, and he was deposed soon after this appointment. Dundee was greatly disappointed when the Scottish Parliament ultimately ruled in favour of William and Mary as joint Sovereigns.

In March 1689, Dundee sneaked into Edinburgh Castle and encouraged the Duke of Gordon to continue to hold the Castle against the Government army. Dundee then travelled around in search of support. Before going home to his wife, he met with some Highlander allies. Although a Lowlander, Dundee was said to have had an interest in the culture of the Highlands, reading about their ancient songs, poems and customs. This knowledge, along with their united goal, probably helped to forge a bond between him and the Highlanders, who typically did not like being led by someone who was not one of them.

Dundee waited for news from the deposed King, before marching to Dundee Law to raise the Standard on 13th April 1689. He then departed and travelled around Scotland rallying support. Dundee had been branded a ‘fugitive and rebel’ and soon a reward was being offered for his immediate capture.

On the 27th of July, a Jacobite army (around 2,500), led by Dundee, met a Government army (around 4000), led by General Hugh Mackay at Killiecrankie. The Jacobites had a better position, starting on a hilltop above the Government soldiers, and the effectiveness of the Highland Charge meant that it was soon a decisive victory for them.

Dundee, however, had been hit by a musket ball and fallen off his horse. While dying, he was said to have asked a fellow Jacobite soldier, ‘How goes the day?’, to which the man replied, ‘Well for King James, but I am sorry for Your Lordship’. Dundee’s reported last words were in response to this statement: If it goes well for him, it matters the less for me’. There is a stone in Killiecrankie dubbed ‘Claverhouses’s Stone’ as he is believed to have died leaning against it.

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Claverhouse’s Stone

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Despite winning the battle, the death of their leader at Killiecrankie was a crushing setback for the Jacobites. It is thought that they lost around 700, including some of their best men. A few weeks later, under an inferior leader, the Jacobites were defeated at the Battle of Dunkeld, and before long the First Rising fizzled out.

 

 

 

 

Queen Anne

Anne was the last official Stuart sovereign, ruling Scotland, England and Ireland from 1702. During her time in power, Scotland and England merged and Anne became the first monarch of Great Britain, ruling until her death in 1714. Throughout her reign, the Jacobites considered her half-brother, the Catholic James Francis Edward Stuart, to be the true King.

Anne was born in 1665. Her uncle Charles II had been King since the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, and her father, James, was the heir. Of James’s marriage to his first wife, Anne Hyde, Anne and her elder sister Mary were the only two children to live into adulthood. Anne Hyde died when her daughters were young, and James soon remarried. The fact that Mary of Modena, James’s second wife, was Catholic meant that the idea of the marriage was unpopular with many of the people. James was already suspected of being a Catholic, and this increased the rumours. Charles II insisted that his nieces Anne and Mary were to be raised Protestant.
In 1683, Anne married Prince George of Denmark, a Protestant. Two years later, Charles II died and Anne’s father became James VII and II. From the beginning of his reign, James attempted to increase the powers of the Catholic Church, which was met mostly with hostility and anger, including from Anne. As time passed, father and daughter became more and more estranged from one another. When Mary of Modena gave birth to a son, James Francis Edward Stuart, rumour spread that a baby had been smuggled in after the real heir had died. Of this, Anne, who had been absent from the birth, wrote to her sister in the Netherlands, “I shall never now be satisfied whether the child be true or false. It may be it is our brother, but God only knows…”

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Queen Anne

Several months later, Anne’s brother-in-law William of Orange invaded England, and James was deposed. Anne had been aware of William’s plans. James soon discovered that, as well as his daughter Mary siding with her husband, Anne had also abandoned him. He reportedly said, “God help me! My own children have forsaken me!” From then on he considered Anne and Mary “ungrateful daughters”. Mary and her husband William were crowned jointly in 1689, and James spent most of the rest of his life in France.
Mary II died in 1694. Mary and Anne had not been speaking at the time of Mary’s death, as she had suspected Anne’s best friend’s husband, the future Duke of Marlborough, of being a secret Jacobite. William III died in 1702. As they had had no children, Anne became Queen. Her father had died in 1701, and the Jacobites had proclaimed her half-brother James VIII and III.
In 1708, one year after the Acts of Union, James Francis landed in Scotland with a French fleet, intent on taking the throne from Anne. He failed, and no serious attempt was made again until a year after her death. As Anne had no surviving children, there was no clear successor. Obviously the Jacobites wanted it to be James Francis, but Catholics were barred from inheriting the throne. When Anne died of a stroke in 1714, George of Hanover, a distant Protestant cousin, inherited the throne, beginning the reign of the Hanoverians.

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All the best, The Culloden Team