Grave markers at Culloden

When people visit Culloden Battlefield most will inevitably head out across the moor and stand in front of the large memorial cairn in the centre of the field. Surrounding the cairn are most, but not all, of the grave markers on the field so it seems fitting to turn our attention to the history of these markers.

Old photo of the Clan Mackintosh marker


The markers on the battlefield were put in place in 1881, some 130 years after the battle. One of the main question we are asked regards the names on the stones, as many carry the names of one or more clans who fought at Culloden. We have had geophysical tests of the area completed and they show that the area around the cairn does indeed hold many mass graves but how the names on the gravestones were chosen is something of a mystery.

Selection of gravestones at Culloden


Clansmen would not have been easy to distinguish from one another. There was no clan tartan back in 1746 so identifying a persons clan relied on smaller things that their cap badge or clan plant that men may have worn. After the battle it would have been incredibly difficult to accurately determine who was from which clan so it is believed that the markers on the field are symbolic of the major clans who fought at Culloden and who suffered significant losses.

As well as the marker by the cairn, there are a few others across the field. Further north are three stones that commemorate the MacDonald’s who fought on the far left of the Jacobite front line. Whilst they did not take part in the hand-to-hand combat that occurred further south they were instrumental in aiding the retreat of the Jacobite army. Each year at the anniversary of the battle the local MacDonald clan and supporters will march down to the stones after the main ceremony to lay a wreath for the men.

Clan Donald stone
Clan Donald Stone


Perhaps one of the most annoying and intriguing stones on the battlefield is that of the ‘Field of the English’. This stone lies behind the front line of the Government troops and supposedly marks the site of a grave of the Government men who died during the battle. However, there are two issues we have with the stone. Firstly, research has shown that there is no sign of a mass grave by the stone. The nearest lies some fifty yard to the West of the stone. Secondly, its inscription, ‘Field of the English’. As we know this is not accurate. The Government army was not an English Army, it was made of men from Scotland, Wales and England making it a British Army.


Despite some questions on the accuracy of the markers though there is no doubt to how special they are to the site. Many who visit take a moment as they walk past the stones to take in the incredible atmosphere of the battle and remember the history of the site.

We hope you enjoyed this short piece about the marker as always please like, share, comment and tweet.

All the best, The Culloden Team

Clan Mottos

Many people who come to Culloden are interested in their own family history and the ties they may have with Scottish culture. One of the most popular questions we get asked is for information about clans and visitors own family connections to their clan heritage.

One area of interest is the mottos of clans. Every clan has their own motto and whilst some have simple or clear meanings, others can be more complicated, and some have great stories connected to them. Today we thought we’d pick a few of our favourite clan mottos and stories to share with you.


MacGillivray Clan Motto


Firstly, the motto of Clan MacGillivray which is ‘Touch not this cat’. The MacGillivray motto has existed for some 300 years or more and in its full version is ‘Touch not the cat bot a glove.’ Often people can mistake this as meaning ‘don’t touch the cat unless you are wearing a glove’, however, the true interpretation is ‘touch not the cat without a glove’. A cat is said to be without a glove when its claws are extended. Therefore the motto is a warning to others not to tackle a MacGillivray when their claws are showing.

Fraser Clan Motto

One of the most famous mottos now is that of the Fraser of Lovat clan, which is ‘Je suis prest’, or ‘I am ready’ in English, and is well known thanks to the popularity of Outlander. The motto is in French as the clan originates from France. Indeed some believe the name Fraser stems from the French word ‘Fraisier’ meaning strawberry which incidentally is the clans plant badge.

Brodie Clan Motto


For a good story regarding mottos it is nice to look at Clan Brodie. The Brodie clan, whose home, Brodie Castle, is just down the road from Culloden, has the simple motto ‘Unite’ which is nice and easy to understand. When you visit the castle you can enter the dining room with its gorgeous plaster work ceiling and see the elegant dining set. Each piece of the set has the clan motto delicately portrayed in its centre right underneath the coat of arms. Unfortunately though on two of the pieces the word has been misspelled and instead of ‘unite’ the pieces read ‘untie’. An unfortunate mistake to make. With just two letters the creators have completely altered the meaning of the ancient clans motto. Now of course it serves as an excellent story for the tour guides!

One of the gorgeous pieces from Brodies dining set

These are only a few example of clan mottos but each clan has its own and during fighting these may have been yelled out by the fighting soldiers to strike fear into the opposition and rally the clans to join together to fight.

We hope you enjoyed this very short look at mottos and as always please like, share, tweet, comment and let us know of any stories you’d like to know more about.

All the best, K & D


A Brief History of Clans

One of the most common queries we get at Culloden is people researching their own family history and trying to understand more about the clan from which they come. So, we thought we’d do a little insight into clans to give you a bit of background on the complicated topic.

First things first: just what is a clan?

The word clan comes from the Gaelic clann meaning children or family.

A clan was typically a community of people living in roughly the same area at the head of which was the Chief. Members of this community could be related to the Chief by blood or they could have been inhabitants upon his lands.  The members of the community, or clansmen, gave their loyalty to the clan Chief and in return he gave them protection, justice, and leadership. Clan members often took the Chief’s surname whether they were related to him or not.

A large clan would have branches or septs, headed by Chieftains who originally would be related to, or appointed by, the Chief. These septs were other family units who did not share the same surname as the Chief but treated him as their own head.

Not everyone in rural Scotland was part of a clan. Unlike those in the Highlands, the Lowlands had similar communities in places such as the border regions, but their structure and customs were somewhat different from those of the Highland clans.  The Border Clans were distinct in their customs and appearance, country tenants would rent land from local Landlords or Lairds without any of the benefits or responsibilities of Highlanders under a clan Chief. However, this didn’t mean that the tenants were not forced to fight for their landowners.

So, the important question, how did you go about becoming a Chief?

The Chief owned the lands, managed the estate, commanded the clan in times of conflict, exercised judicial powers over his people and provided them with assistance in times of difficulty. At the same time they continued to uphold the clan traditions of hospitality, kinship and Gaelic cultural patronage.

The role was usually inherited by the eldest son, although this didn’t always happen. Typically Chiefs were well-educated, often well-travelled politicians or businessman who operated in wider economic, political and cultural worlds.

Between the Chief and the clansmen was the tacksman who was often related to the Chief. They rented out the Chief’s land and gathered the men when the Chief wanted to go to war. This system meant the Chief was not personally involved in these operations and could therefore retain his position as ‘father of his people’ unimpaired.

Whilst we might understand what a clan is we still need to discover how they formed in the first place?

Clans did not derive from any single race or tribe, indeed they were descended from a variety of tribes that at one time settled in parts of Scotland, races such as the Celts, Picts, Britons and the Norse. The first language of the Highland Clans was Gaelic and at one time this was the majority language of the country, but a divide began to open up over time between the Lowlands and the predominately Gaelic speaking Highlands.

This language divide helped to separate the Lowland Scottish families and the Highland clans and with the geographical divide two different cultures began to emerge. The general power of the clans increased the further away they were from the centre of power and authority in Scotland, which varied with where the monarch chose for his or her main residence during any given reign.

The clan system no longer exists as it did in the 18th Century, so what happened?

By 1745 the clan system was already changing with some Chiefs becoming more interested in money than men and dispensing with the tacksmen as costly intermediaries. The Chiefs had always been at odds with the established authorities in Lowland Scotland, be it through the differences in culture, language, custom or other factors. However, over time and with increased exposure to the rest of Scotland, some of the Chiefs, rather than seeing themselves as being at the head of an extended family, began to take on the role of land owners along the lines of the English or Lowland Scots landlord. Gradually many of the Chiefs desired to live similar lives to their counterparts in the Lowlands and in order to fund the expensive lifestyle that this entailed they set in motion changes to the fabric of the Highland way of life.  Thus a painfully slow alienation of the Chiefs from their clans gradually began.

Many people believe it was Culloden that caused the demise of the clan system but in reality Culloden acted merely as a catalyst, accelerating the process of social change within the clan system. After the battle the Government pushed ahead with legislation to alter the way of Highland life.

The Act of Proscription (1746) was a series of measures designed to limit, if not destroy, the power of the clans in order to  remove any future threat from the Highlands to the rest of Great Britain. The Act included banning the wearing of the traditional Highland dress, disarming of the population and other such measures. The law was enforced mercilessly by the Government and it is said that tens of thousands of Highlanders were murdered by Government troops in the space of a few years after the failure of the 1745 rebellion for trivial crimes and indeed many such executions were said to have been completely arbitrary.

In 1747 the Heritable Jurisdictions Act removed Chiefs from their hereditary power to impose punishments of imprisonment or death and they became ordinary landlords. Their wealth had been reckoned in men and now, with their lands remote and poor in comparison to the south, they were no longer important. Rents were increased and whole communities were uprooted and evicted to make way for the more profitable sheep, with little and often no concern for their wellbeing.

Gradually much of the Highlands, once teeming with thriving communities, the clan system at the heart of them, emptied.   A great mass of people had been forced to emigrate to the Lowlands of Scotland or overseas, some had left voluntarily, some were assisted by their former Chiefs but most were forced out by the Chiefs-turned-Landlords.

Whilst this was a huge loss to Britain it proved an immeasurable gain to those countries abroad to which they travelled and from which, generations later, their ancestors have returned on a pilgrimage to a proud past.

Which brings us full circle to today and the many visitors we get to welcome to Culloden in search of their ancestry.

We hope you enjoyed this little taster of Clans. As always like, tweet, share, comment, follow and be sure to find out your own history and let us know all about it. All the best. K & D