FAQ’s

We get many questions asked here at Culloden so to help clear a few things up here are our most common queries.

cairn
Culloden Memorial Cairn

 

 Where does the name Jacobite come from?

We talk about the Jacobites a lot but don’t mention the origin of the name that much. The term actually comes from the Latin for the name James which is Jacobus. James VII & II was deposed as King and it was after this that the first Risings began. So the Jacobites were essentially the followers of King James VII & II and subsequently his son and grandson.

 So, the English won?

No! We get a lot of visitors who believe that the battle of Culloden was Scotland vs. England but this just is not true. There were Scots on both sides and English on both sides. The Jacobites had a whole regiment raised in Manchester and the Government army had Scottish clans fighting with them. And, this doesn’t even consider the number of French, Irish and Dutch fighting. Culloden was a civil war which pitched members of the same family against each other so was not a simple matter. For more check out our other blog ‘It’s not Scotland vs England’

cull5
Jacobite flag on Culloden Battlefield

 

Why did they fight at Culloden? 

This question is for the Jacobites. They were famous for their tactic of the highlands charge and yet at Culloden they were lined up on a boggy field which served to slow them down. The answer is debated to this day. After a long march the night before the Jacobites were scattered as they searched for food or tried to sleep but the Government were soon upon them. Some argued they should position themselves nearer the river Nairn where they could use their charge with more effect. Some felt the boggy moor would hinder the government horse and artillery. Ultimately on the day of the battle no council of war was held to decide the best spot. This may have been because Prince Charles feared his men would argue for a tactical retreat. Thus, on the day of battle it was Prince Charles who ordered his men to form a line across Drummossie Moor to meet the Government men.

cull10
One of the gravestone on the battlefield

 

How many men fought on each side and how many died?

Again a little tricky as there is some debate about the exact numbers in each army. The Jacobites had roughly 5,500 men whilst the Government had around 7,500. As to those who died, the Jacobites lost approximately 1,500 men in the short battle. Official Government records give their losses at just 50 men although the accuracy of this number is questioned. Certainly hundreds would have been injured and many would have later died from their wounds. The figure of 50 may also have been lowered to make their victory seem greater.

These are probably the most popular questions we get here at the battlefield, apart from ‘Where are the toilets?’ and hopefully you enjoyed discovering the answers. As always please like, share, tweet, and let us know if you have any questions you’d like us to try and answer.

All the best, K & D

Dr Archibald Cameron

Archibald Cameron of Lochiel was the third surviving son of John Cameron, the 18th Lochiel and played an important part during the ’45 Jacobite Rising as both a doctor and leader.

 

arhie
Dr Archibald Cameron

Born in 1707 Archibald initially attended Glasgow University to study law before he moved over to Edinburgh University and became a doctor of medicine. His father, the 18th Lochiel had raised men for the 1715 Jacobite Rising and as result was an exile, living on the continent. Thus when 1745 arrived it was Archibalds older brother, Donald, who was acting as clan chief.

When Prince Charles arrived in Scotland eager to gather support for his cause Donald sent Archibald out to see him and try to persuade the Prince that his efforts were futile and that he should return to France and give up the idea of a Rebellion.

However, Prince Charles spoke with Archibald and managed to persuade him that a Rising was worthwhile and soon had the Camerons joining with him and his growing Jacobite army.

Throughout the Jacobite campaign Archibald used his skills as a doctor wisely and fairly. He gained a reputation for his kind treatment towards not just the Jacobites but also any Government prisoners that were placed under his care. At Culloden his brother, Donald, was shot through both ankles by grapeshot but with Archibalds help he managed to survive.

After the battle Archibald, as with many Jacobites was forced into hiding to escape  Government hands. As a well known and prominent man  there was little doubt that if he was caught he could be severely punished for his actions. It is believed that Archibald managed to meet up with Prince Charles and stayed with him for a while in the legendary Cluny’s Cage. Eventually he travelled west with the Prince together with a few other men managed to elude the Government and sail to France.

In exile Archibald remained at Prince Charles’ service and was also made a commander of the second battalion of a new Scottish regiment within the French Army, with his brother to be in overall command. By all accounts he appeared to live reasonably well on the continent and accompanied Prince Charles on a trip to Madrid in 1748. However, all was not to last.

In 1753 Archibald travelled back to Scotland. Here he was destined to take part in an assassination plot against King George II and other members of the royal family. Unfortunately Archibald was betrayed. Some say it was Pickle the spy who informed the Government of his whereabouts whilst others suggest it was members of his own clan who were incensed by his continued loyalty to Prince Charles and the Jacobites. Either way Archibald was captured and imprisoned in Edinburg Castle for high treason.

Eventually he was moved to London and held in the Tower of London. He was denied a fair trial with the Government worried that the identity of their spies would be revealed and was sentenced to death. Whilst in prison, despite not being allowed writing material, he managed to write down some of his last thoughts where he still remained resolutely faithful to the Jacobite cause. Among them was also a letter to his young son in France in which he wrote. ‘I thank God I was always easier ashamed than frightened.’

On 7th June 1753 Archibald was executed. He was drawn on a sledge and hanged for 20 minutes, before being cut down and beheaded. His body was secretly buried in the Savoy Chapel in Westminster.  Today a brass plaque marks his grave after two earlier memorials had been destroyed by fire and war.

Archibald Cameron was the last Jacobite to receive the death penalty and it was a move that shocked many after all his work to save lives, not just those on his side but also of the Government.

We hope you enjoyed this short bio on Dr Archibald Cameron, as always please like, share, tweet, comment and keep joining us for more important facts about the Jacobites.

All the best, K & D

 

No Quarter Given

The phrase ‘no quarter given’ is well known to us here at Culloden and the story that lies behind it is an important one to tell.

To give ‘no quarter’ meant that no prisoners would be taken. Any men on the battlefield would have no mercy shown to them and surrender would not be accepted.

On the eve of the Battle of Culloden the Duke of Cumberland was determined to end the Jacobite Rising and prevent the Jacobites from ever being capable of challenging the throne again. After losing to the Jacobites at every turn, up to this point, he would not let them win again. To motivate his men he informed them that Lord George Murray had ordered ‘no quarter’ to be given to the Government men on the field. This meant the men would be shown no mercy by the Jacobites . However, this claim was not true. No such order had been given.

cumber4
Duke of Cumberland

 

From copies of Lord Murray’s orders there was no mention of ‘no quarter’ anywhere. But, in Cumberland’s papers there was a copy in which the words ‘and to give no quarters to the electors troops on any account whatsoever’ had been inserted. Whilst Cumberland may not have been responsible for doctoring the order he certainly did not shy away from the words written and retaliated in kind.

After the battle Cumberland ordered his men to search out any surviving rebels who were to be treated as traitors, outside the conventions of international combat. Those with the Royal Ecossais or the Irish Piquet’s would be regarded as prisoners of war but everyone else was to be considered traitors. Whilst some men in the government army refused to kill, and tried to turn a blind eye, there were some who committed terrible acts. As well as wounded soldiers, civilians, women and children were all killed in the horrible aftermath of Culloden.

murray
Lord George Murray

 

The act of no quarter at Culloden was undoubtedly a terrible occasion but the fact that it was built upon a lie makes it even worse. The period that followed Culloden, with Cumberland’s pacification of the highlands, was an awful time and led to Cumberland being called ‘the Butcher’ in later life.

As always we hope you enjoyed this post and please like, comment, tweet, share and keep coming back to learn more.

All the best, K&D

Famous Birthplaces

The NTS looks after some amazing properties and landscapes across Scotland, and therefore, it is unsurprising that we have some fascinating links to some Scottish icons. Here we take a look at a few of our favourite famous connections by exploring the homes of some famous scots.

Firstly, one of the most well known of our properties the Robert Burns Birthplace Museum, or RBBM for short.

burns3
Robert Burn’s Cottage

Here you have the chance to really immerse yourself in the history of Burns. From the cottage where Burns was born and raised; across the Brig o’ Doon, the setting for his work Tam o’ Shanter; through to the monument raised after his death. The visitor centre is great and home to lots of interesting artefacts, as well as some fun interactive activities for the young, and the young at heart. If you can definitely tag onto a walk down to the cottage as the guides are very knowledgeable and make sure you get a photo with the lovely mouse statue.

If you get the chance you can also stop by JM Barries Birthplace.

barrie3
JM Barries Writing Desk

This quaint cottage where Barrie was born in 1860 is now a museum dedicated to his life. As the ninth of ten children he longed to be a writer from a young age and his most famous creation, Peter Pan, has probably be read by most people. The house includes family heirlooms such as the silk christening robe used for all the Barrie children as well as artefacts from later in his life, including his original desk from his flat in London.

Nearer us in the north we have Hugh Millers Birthplace on the Black Isle in Cromarty.

hugh2
Hugh Millers Birthplace

Perhaps not as well known as some of the other men on our list, Hugh Miller was a self-taught folklorist, writer and geologist. His collection of some 6,000 fossils is held by National Museums Scotland with several on show at his birthplace cottage. It is a fascinating journey to discover more about this man who was a pioneering scientist in his day. His advise to ‘Make a right use of your eyes’ encourages everyone to stop and look around them at the beauty of the world we live in.

Finally we turn to Thomas Carlyle’s Birthplace in Ecclefechan.

carlyle
Carlyle’s Birthplace in Ecclefechan

Born in 1795 Carlyle was one of Scotland most influential writers and thinkers and though his house does not appear much from the outside, inside it holds a wealth of history. First opened to the public in 1881 the house has remained relatively unchanged, and was actually constructed by Carlyle’s own father and uncle who were both stonemasons. Interestingly when Carlyle died he declined the offer of a final resting place in Westminster Abbey, and was instead buried beside his parents in Ecclefechan.

We hope you enjoyed this taster of special homes the NTS looks after. As always please comment, share, like, re-blog and check out more sites at www.nts.org.uk

All the best, K & D

P.S. Here’s a picture of the gorgeous mouse at RBBM

burns2
Isn’t he lovely?