With the 31st December marking Prince Charles Edward Stuarts birthday we thought we’d look at his options for a birthday cake!
Firstly from ‘The Cookbook of Unknown Ladies’ we have a light sponge with lemon and caraway entitled ‘Mrs Townleys Cake’
Mrs Townleys Cake
A pd of sugar, dryed, pounded & sifted, half a pd of flower, 12 eggs, half ye whites. The yolks & whites beat seperately. Put the sugar to yr yolks, beat them till as white as cream. Then, put in the whites by degrees. As the froth rises, great in the rinds of 4 lemons, an ounce of carray seeds. Then put in yr flower. All together mix it well. Butter yr pan. An hour bakes it.
We don’t know who Mrs Townley was but the recipe sounds pretty good so we’re assuming she was a nice woman. Not much is said about decoration so we’re going to allow ourselves free reign to try and jazz it up a bit and make it look elegant and pretty.
Secondly, from the book with our favourite title ‘The Whole Duty of a Woman: Or, an infallible Guide to the Fair Sex containing Rules, Directions and Observation, for their Conduct and Behavior through all Ages and Circumstances of Life, as Virgins, Wives, or Widows.’ little fruity cake that must be good as it is called a ‘Queens Cake’
You must take a pound of dry’d flour, a pound of refin’d sugar sifted, and a pound of currants wash’d, pick’d and rubb’d clean, and a pound of butter wash’d very well, and rub it into the flour and sugar, with a little beaten mace, and a little orange-flower-water; beat ten eggs, but half the whites, work it all well together with your hands, and put in the currants; sift over it double refin’d sugar, and put them immediately into a gentle oven to bake.
Most of the recipes and references seem to make these into small cakes, like cupcakes. Whilst Prince Charles never quite made it to being king we though a Queen’s Cake might be fitting allow him to take out some of his disappointment by devouring the entire batch himself.
Good luck if you try to make these recipes. As always please share, comment, like, tweet, follow, re-blog but try not to do too much over the festive period apart form have fun.
With 2016 drawing to a close we thought we’d take a look back at all the fun we’ve had this year, with a year in the life of Culloden.
Things started off pretty crazy at Culloden with a total shop refit in January. In the space of three weeks we had the entire space gutted and rebuilt. The best parts for us was firstly getting to help tear the old shop apart. We certainly impressed some of the guys with our ability to rip up floor tiles! And obviously the finished result which looked amazing.
To get the year started with a smile we had great fun running kelpies and selkies workshops. Here we got to share some of the great folk tales that Scotland has, as well as getting to have a bit of a play with some arts and crafts.
We also had some snow in February which made the battlefield look gorgeous. No snow yet this winter but we’ll have to wait and see what the new year brings.
Big excitement in March when we welcomed two new members to the Culloden team, our new ponies, Rosie and Glen. These two fitted in straight away and have busy working hard all year helping our facilities team to maintain the battlefield and prevent the spread of invasive plant species.
By April we hit the Anniversary and this year it was big one as it marked 270 years since the battle. We hosted the annual commemoration service and had lots of guest lecturers delivering a whole programme of talks about the Jacobites, the battlefield and its archaeology.
In summer things were non-stop. With coaches, cruise ships, visitors from all across the world it was certainly a busy season. We hosted our annual walk in the gloaming which saw its best attendance yet and is fast become a favourite annual event.
And of course, we managed to keep the visitors happy with our volunteers working hard to deliver insightful presentations and run our living history workshops.
We also managed to take time out to head down to Glenfinnan which reopened the doors to the famous monument after some wonderful restoration work on the tower itself and the beautiful plaques that surround it.
By October we were pleased to welcome Chest, Heart & Stroke Scotland back for the annual Culloden Run which saw almost 500 runners taking part and raising money for this fantastic cause.
Things didn’t slow down with our Community Thank You Day in November offering tours, presentations, dancing and singing for everyone to enjoy. And so that brings us to December where we’ve all been getting into the Christmas spirit and enjoying the last few weeks before we start the whole cycle again!
We’d love to see you come along and join the excitement and history at Culloden next year. As always please like, comment, tweet and keep your eye on the Culloden website to keep up to date with all the events coming up next year.
On 18th December 1745 the Jacobites and the Hanoverians met at Clifton Moor. The Jacobites had begun their retreat from Derby with the British forces following closely behind. At Clifton the Jacobites chose to make a stand and face the men chasing them. They once again proved the effectiveness of the Highland Charge and were able to defeat the Hanoverians and continue on their trek north.
However, the big question for today is, was this the last battle on English soil? It sounds a fairly simple question but the answer is not so straightforward.
The main problem here is, how do you class something as a battle? Culloden we are happy to call a battle but Clifton Moor is not so easy and is considered by many to be a skirmish. The difficulty lies in definitions generally a battle is larger than a skirmish and is usually a pitched event with large numbers and the main body of the army coming together to support their cause. A skirmish on the other hand is considered to be smaller without the main body of the army and with limited combat.
Since Clifton Moor involved mainly just the rear guard of the Jacobites with roughly 1,000 men it is typically given the title of skirmish. So, if we discount Clifton Moor we have to look back to the next closest contender with would be the Battle of Preston in 1715, another Jacobite action. Here Jacobites barricaded the main streets of Preston as six regiments of Government men arrived to stop the Jacobite advance. The main battle lasted from 12th November to the 14th November when a surrender was finally agreed and almost 1,500 Jacobites were taken prisoner.
But again, was this a battle? Here the debate is that Preston was actually a siege. A siege is considered to occur when an assault is made on a place that has been blocked and sealed by forces within. Thus the town,city etc. is surrounded, supplies are cut off and the hope is that the forces inside ultimately surrender and/or are captured. This sounds like it matches the description of the Battle of Preston so once again some choose to discount this battle and look even further back.
Finally we come to 1685 and the Battle of Sedgemoor. Fought on 6th July 1685 this battle was the last battle of the Monmouth Rebellion. The rebellion was fought between the duke of Monmouth and King James II & VII. James had taken the throne following the death of his brother Charles II but the Duke of Monmouth believed he should be king as Charles II’s illegitimate son. the battle saw 4,000 of Monmouth’s men face 3,000 royalist troops. The superior training of the royalists quickly outflanked Monmouth’s men and the battle was a decisive win for James II.
The Battle of Sedgemoor seems to meet all the criteria for a battle. It saw the main force of Monmouth’s army all coming together to fight for one cause and saw a pivotal moment in the rebellion as it effectively ended Monmouth’s attempt on the throne. It was certainly not a siege and the men and gravity of the fighting make it too large for a skirmish. Therefore, most people at least agree that this was a battle so this could be classed as the last battle on English soil.
Before we finish also worth a mention is the Battle of Graveney March. This took place on 27th September 1940. Here a German plane was forced to crash land and when the British forces arrived the German crew had armed themselves with weapons. After a heated exchange of gunfire the German crew were eventually captured. The action allowed the British to take hold of the German aircraft and gain useful information and intelligence from the craft. Once again though the classification of a battle is debated and with the German crew consisting of just four men many class the action as a skirmish.
So, when was the last battle on English soil? To be honest we still don’t know for sure. It all depends on how you feel these actions should be classified. but, then again, should the classifications really matter. Each of the battles/skirmished/sieges above are important in their own right and each show acts of bravery, pain, success and losses. who can say which is the most important? Regardless of which one was ‘the last battle’ they are all important and all deserve to be remembered.
We hope you enjoyed this post. As always please like, comment, follow, tweet and be sure to give us your views on battles and sieges and skirmishes and conflicts and any other actions that are important.
Among the amazing castles, homes, gardens and, of course, battlefields that the National Trust for Scotland looks after there are some great places of industrial heritage which we thought we’d take a little look at today.
Firstly, one of our favourites, and perfect for us wannabe writers, Robert Smail’s Printing Works.
Located in the Scottish borders, this small business first starting printing in 1856 and continues to this day. It is a fantastic place, a real treasure trove of items with newspapers, ledgers and paper stacked everyone. Details of every job that the company took on in over 100 years was kept and catalogued. And today, you can still see the machinery in action and be taken back to the time of the Victorian printer. You can try typesetting and letter pressing all with the tremendous sounds of industry in action around you. It’s a fantastically fun place to see and great that it still makes some of the Trusts literature we use today.
Over in the east, we have the lovely site of Preston Mill.
Some people will recognise this as one of the locations in the Outlander TV series and it’s easy to see why it was chosen, with its unique charm and character. Today the site offers guided tours taking you inside to see the workings of what was East Lothians last working water mill. A mill has been on the site since 1599 but the building would have changed a few times over the years. With its distinctive Dutch style conical-roof it is instantly recognisable and offers a lovely escape from the cities to a quieter spot.
Looking west, we get to Weavers Cottage near Glasgow.
This 18th Century cottage recreates the living and working conditions of a typical handloom weaver. Here you can explore the authentic Kilbarchan looms and spinning wheels, as well as see the traditional tartan that they could have made. In the 18th Century there were over 800 handlooms in the village but by the 1930’s just 20 remained. Today the process is rather soothing with its rhythmic motion and we love the fact that there is plenty of colour around the house with all the different fabrics to be found.
Finally, a bit further north near Dundee is another mill, Barry Mill.
The big highlight of Barry Mill is the fact that it is still working. And for a place where the youngest bit of equipment is from roughly 1910, this is quite impressive. Barry Mill is one of very few remaining water mills in Scotland that are operational and can actually be viewed by the public. We like it because of its peaceful setting that is broken by the splash of the water wheel as it turns. If you go try and visit on a Sunday when demonstrations of the milling typically take place.
Hopefully, one or more of these properties take your fancy and it’s nice to discover a little about the variety of the properties that the National Trust for Scotland helps care for and protect. As always please like, share, tweet, comment and remember if you’re a member of the Trust then you can visit all these places for free.
James Francis Edward Stuart was nicknamed ‘the Old Pretender’ after his father was deposed and the throne of Scotland and England was passed to William and Mary. Here we take a look at his life.
James was born on 10th June 1688 at St James’s Palace in London and his birth was controversial to say the least. James was the son of existing king James VII & II and his second wife, Mary of Modena. James would be a Catholic heir to the throne of Scotland and England and this was not something that was favourably look upon. Almost as soon as he was born rumours began to spread that James was an impostor. It was believed that the true child had been a stillborn and James was smuggled in in a warming pan to replace the sadly deceased baby. James’ father was forced to publish several eyewitness testimonies to put a stop to these rumours and assure everyone that James was indeed their son and heir.
Less than a year after James’ birth the Glorious Revolution began with William of Orange arriving from Holland to contest the throne. On 9th December 1688 James’ mother Mary, supposedly disguised as a laundress, escaped Britain taking James over to the relative safety of France. It was here that he was brought up with the French court regarding him and his family as the true monarchs.
When James’ father died in 1701 King Louis XIV of France along with Spain and the Papal States recognised James as James VII of Scotland and III of England. However, as a result of accepting this title he was attainted for treason in London and all his English estates were forfeited. The next twenty years would see James make various attempts to retake the throne which he felt was rightfully his.
In 1708 his first attack was launched. Initially delayed because James had contracted measles he set out from France with almost 30 ships carrying some 5,000 men to reach Scotland. This would be the largest ever French expedition to come within striking distance of Britain in support for James. Unfortunately, as the fleet approached the Royal Navy were ready. James’ measles may have given them the time needed to prepare for James’ attack. The French ships were forced to flee under the strength of the Royal Navy and took flight along the north coast of Scotland, with many ships being destroyed along the rocky coastline. After this James joined the French army for a while before he was asked to leave France in 1713 as part of the conditions of Frances peace agreement with Britain.
In 1715, James tried again. This time he reached mainland and most people suggest that this was the uprising that should have worked. See our blog on 1715 for more info. Unfortunately, once again James was denied. Despite winning at the Battle of Sheriffmuir, and in Preston, James ultimately gave up the fight when he heard Government reinforcements were on the way. He fled Scotland and returned to the continent but his apparent abandonment of his men left a poor impression on many and his welcome back was not great.
After the failed 1715 invasion he eventually took up residence in Rome where the pope recognised him as the rightful king and gave him the Palazzo Muti to have as his home. James made one finally attempt on the British throne in 1719 with some Spanish support but this ultimately came to nothing. Then in May 1719 James married Maria Sobieska by proxy and later, in September, they renewed their vows in person. The following year they gave birth to their first son Charles Edward Stuart. This was followed five years later by another son Henry Benedict Stuart.
By 1745 it was Charles who was looking to take the British throne and it is said that James and Charles clashed many times over Charles plans to attempt his own rising. As we know the rising did not succeed and Charles returned to the continent. The relationship was further damaged when James helped his son Henry in his goal of becoming a cardinal. AS such Henry would have no legitimate children to carry on the Stuart line and Charles was said to be angry that the decision had been made without him being consulted.
James lived in Rome for the rest of his life where he was well treated. He died on 1st January 1766 in his home at the Palazzo Muti. Later he was buried in St Peters basilica in Vatican city and his tomb is marked by a monument to the Stuarts. After James’ death the Pope refused to recognise Charles as the rightful king and finally accepted the Hanoverian succession to the throne.
Interestingly James ‘reign’ had it been recognised would have lasted for 64 years, 3 months and 16 days longer than any other monarch until Queen Elizabeth passed this total in May this year.
We hope you enjoyed this brief insight into the life of James and as always please like, share, tweet, comment and keep coming back for more.